In recent months, physical, playful activity has been the only way out of painful ruminations for me, providing a temporary respite from debilitating depression. Its transformative power is surprising to me for its ability to help me manage my emotions.
Evolutionary biologist and animal behavioral specialist Marc Bekoff, PhD, once said that “play is training for the unexpected.” And psychiatrist and play expert Stuart Brown, MD, said, “Those who play rarely become brittle in the face of stress or lose the healing capacity for humor.”
I’m beginning to think that playing can even access parts of our brain that are blocked to mindfulness, meditation, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
In an article published in the spring 2011 issue of the American Journal of Play, Boston College research professor Peter Gray, PhD, wrote:
Over the past half century or so, in the United States and in some other developed nations, opportunities for children to play, especially to play outdoors with other children, have continually declined. Over this same period, measures of psychopathology in children and adolescents — including indices of anxiety, depression, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism — have continually increased.
I recently had the opportunity to speak with Dr. Gray, author of Free to Learn, about the importance of play not only for kids, but for adults.
What’s Different About Playfulness and Playing
“I think it’s important to distinguish between the general sense of playfulness that we can attach to our responsibilities as adults — work, household jobs, etc. — and the classic, pure sense of play that we experience as children,” he explains.
They are different, but both are important.
For example, as adults, it’s important to take on a playful attitude as we wash the dishes, fold the laundry, and attend work meetings. With a little creativity, we can find a way of carrying out our responsibilities in ways that we enjoy.
And then there are those activities that are completely separate from the grind of life, such as gardening, hiking, kayaking, or biking — events that are more similar to children’s play and serve as opportunities to transport us away from our world.
“For some people, the activity of play may be very physical, engaging the body,” says Gray. “But for other people, play may be more of a meditative experience.”
Achieving ‘Flow’ When You Play
I’ve found that in order for play to successfully take me out of my head, I have to add a little bit of challenge to it. By complicating the activity in such a way that I have to concentrate very hard, I am better able to achieve a sense of “flow,” the mental state of being completely immersed in an activity. Positive psychologist Mihály Csíkszentmihályi first defined this idea in his national bestseller Flow, in which he described it as a single-mindedness that’s able to harness all emotions into one action in order to produce a kind of rapture.
Swimming, for example, gives me great satisfaction. I very much enjoy it. But my mind doesn’t stop racing as I swim back and forth in a 25-yard pool. There’s not enough challenge.
But my mind DOES stop racing when I swim in open water. There’s an element of danger and newness: Not only do I have to keep my body above water, but I’m also watching for boats, jet skis, water snakes, rays, and jellyfish, all the while fighting choppy waves and currents.
To achieve flow and optimal play, there’s usually some learning involved. “Play is our brain’s favorite way of learning,” says writer Diane Ackerman, author of A Natural History of the Senses and other books. In the process of learning a new skill, our neurons become wired together.
Neuroscientists like Nathan Spreng, PhD, director of Cornell University’s laboratory of brain and cognition in Ithaca, New York, have mapped the brain activity of people learning new skills and have discovered that trying something new essentially rewires our brain.
Why We Need Play
Play is critical to the development of the human brain, according to Dr. Brown, founder of the National Institute for Play.
“Nothing lights up the brain like play,” he explained in his fascinating TED talk. “Three-dimensional play fires up the cerebellum, puts a lot of impulses into the frontal lobe — the executive portion — helps contextual memory be developed, and … and, and, and.”
He highlights a study where one group of rats was allowed to play and one group wasn’t. All rats were then presented with a cat odor-saturated collar. Both groups fled and hid. But the rats that were allowed to play slowly began to explore the environment and test things out again. The rats that weren’t allowed to play? They never came out, and they died.
That says to me, at least in rats — and I think they have the same neurotransmitters that we do and a similar cortical architecture — that play may be pretty important for our survival … We do know that in domestic animals and others, when they’re play deprived, they don’t develop a brain that is normal ….
The opposite of play is not work, it’s depression. And I think if you think about life without play — no humor, no flirtation, no movies, no games, no fantasy, and, and, and. Try to imagine a culture or a life, adult or otherwise, without play. And the thing that’s so unique about our species is that we’re really designed to play through our whole lifetime.
How Play Fosters Collaboration and Creativity
Gray explained to me that in all hunter-gatherer societies, play allows adults to get along with each other, a mechanism by which we learn to be more collaborative and less combative. Since a sense of connection and community is essential to mental health, we need to learn how to relate to one another.
“Play is necessary for animals and all hunter-gatherer societies to cooperate with each other instead of dominating each other,” he says.
Play also fosters creativity.
“There has been a lot of research done on creativity and playfulness,” explains Gray. “Playfulness promotes creativity and improves feelings at work.” Whether it be trying to adopt a more playful attitude at the office, or leaving your desk to take a short bike ride, play is important to the creative process, he says.
Brown ended his TED talk with the same point with which Gray began his interview with me, by saying that play isn’t just an activity we do for a half hour when we get home from work — it’s an attitude that we need to embrace 24/7.
I would encourage you all to engage not in the work-play differential — where you set aside time to play — but where your life becomes infused minute by minute, hour by hour, with body, object, social, fantasy, transformational kinds of play. And I think you’ll have a better and more empowered life.
Join Project Hope & Beyond, my depression community.
Photo Credit: Getty Images
Originally published on Sanity Break.
Fascinating piece of writing again Therese. This focus on the importance of play, while interesting also raised my thoughts and feelings of abject despair. The main reason being that for 8 years now my ability to focus, concentrate or immerse myself in play activity has been impossible. On numerous occasions I have put myself on the line by engaging in what I would describe as playful activity such as, playing with my granddaughter, design work on the computer or visiting my brother. Very rarely have I ever been able to reach a point that I could describe as being in ‘in the moment’. Because of this inability to ‘put aside’ my torment and pain and therefore achieve pleasure through playful or creative activity my life is now devoid of positive human contact, social activities, interests or hobbies. Worst of all is the realisation that I find it so difficult, if not impossible, to gain pleasure or fun when spending time with my 4 year old granddaughter who I love so dearly. What I have outlined here is a perfect example of the ‘anticipatory thinking’ you speak of in your article regarding the difficulties in decision making when in deep depression. I responded to that post also. Sadly I’m in this insidious position that I now anticipate each day will bring yet more torment and despair irrespective of what I do. I’m both amazed and envious of your breadth of knowledge across the spectrum of mental health and wellbeing. As treatment after treatment failed for me, I have tried in a much smaller way to integrate the physical, spiritual and mental health aspects of my life. Guess what – largely due to anticipation of the outcome I have not been successful.
I certainly know what you speak of Ron. I find myself often doing the positive things that you describe and yet my mood remains stagnant. I try and accept where I am, realize my “Black Dog” is at it again. Then take care of myself in whatever I can. I have found discerning activities that are more likely to boost mood is key. Getting small tasks done, cursing with the cry of Job at the world for this ridiculous situation and shifting to humorous self talk (out loud) can help me.
Hang in there mate. Its what we have to do. For your Granddaughter and mine.
Excellent, informative, makes sense, play seems to have all kinds of benefits. Would love to hear from other readers what they do to play, how do they get in the “flow” without making it anxious not playful experience. I think of the two best times of being in the flow was once playing tennis with husband and once when I played in golf tournament. I wasn’t nervous, had no expections of winning but just somehow got into the out of body “zone” experience and won both at experiences quite easily, effortlessly, enjoyably. It ‘s not all about danger or adrenaline rush….it’s about feeling good. sitting in a field of clover after a long walk with my dog, looking for 4 leaf clovers…..sounds playful, satisfying and fun. would love other’s ideas. thank u
So true. I find that play encompasses so much that is good for our brain. Including physical engagement, humor and just being silly (a serious past time in England) . Such activities often free up my mind from the endless rumination that occurs in low mood. I have found that for me rumination is one trap and reading popular self improvement and spiritual blogs another. These people have typically no idea about deep depression (at least what I experience) and their well intentioned claims just clutter my mind with more rubbish. The attitude of play brings with it a certain lightness of being that sets us right with the world.
[…] her blog article, Why You Shouldn’t Stop Playing, Borchard personally declared “I’m beginning to think that playing can even access parts of our […]